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Saturday, October 31, 2015

The Holistic prevention, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Effectiveness of Vitamins

Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Research article By Kyle J. Norton

Biography
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOs)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovascular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).

The prevention and management

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.



The Effectiveness of Vitamins

1. Vitamin B2
Vitamin B2 required for a wide variety of cellular processes, plays a key role in energy metabolism, enhances the digestive system in absorbing nutrients and supports the immune system(285)(286)(287)in fighting against irregular cell growth causes of chronic inflammatory disease(288).

2. Vitamin C
Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin and an antioxidant found in high concentrations in immune cells, is not only important in aiding the digestive system in absorbing nutrients, but also enhances the production of white blood cell(289)(290) of the immune system in protection of the body against oxidative stress, harmful bacteria(291) and virus induced inflammation.

3. Vitamin A
Retinoic acid, appears to maintain normal skin health by switching on genes and differentiating keratinocytes (immature skin cells)(292) into mature epidermal cells and helps to detoxify liver(293), and enhances the immune system(294)(295) in protecting our body through its anti tumor functions (296).

4. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is fat-soluble compounds included both tocopherols and tocotrienols. It besides is an polyphenol antioxidants(296)(297)(302) in scavenging free radicals, but also promotes the immune system in enhanced functions of B-cells(298)(299)(300), the immune cells(301)(303) in production of antibodies to destroy irregular cell proliferation.

5. Vitamin D
15 minutes in the the Sun daily has shown to provide necessary vitamin D for the body. Over 68% of women with PCOs had vitamin D deficiency.(304). According to Medical faculty of P.J.Šafarik University Košice, women with vitamin D deficient PCOs are exhibited a significantly higher body mass index (BMI), fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance and borderline higher glycemia in comparison to controls(305).


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

References
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women WithPolycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(266) [Immunopathological responses in women with chronic inflammatorydiseases of the uterus and appendages and their therapeutic correction].[Article in Russian] by Medvedev BI1, Kazachkova EA, Kazachkov EL.(PubMed)
(267) Cross Talk Between ER Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Health and Disease by Dandekar A1, Mendez R, Zhang K.(PubMed)
(268) New dog and new tricks: evolving roles for IL-33 in type 2 immunity by Lott JM1, Sumpter TL1, Turnquist HR2.(PubMed)
(285) Food, Immunity, and the Microbiome by Tilg H1, Moschen AR2.(PubMed)
(286) Edible mushrooms: improving human health and promoting quality life by Valverde ME1, Hernández-Pérez T1, Paredes-López O1.(PubMed)
(287) [Effect of some vitamins on activity of immunocompetent cells].[Article in Russian]by Nezgovorov DV.(PubMed)
(288) Antioxidants keep the potentially probiotic but highly oxygen-sensitive human gut bacterium Faecalibacterium prausnitzii alive at ambient air by Khan MT1, van Dijl JM1, Harmsen HJ1.(PubMed)
(289) Storing red blood cells with vitamin C and N-acetylcysteine prevents oxidative stress-related lesions: a metabolomics overview by Pallotta V1, Gevi F1, D'alessandro A1, Zolla L1.(PubMed)
(290) Red blood cell metabolism under prolonged anaerobic storage by D'Alessandro A1, Gevi F, Zolla L.(PubMed)
(291) Alterations in antioxidant defense system of workers chronically exposed to arsenic, cadmium and mercury from coal flying ash by Zeneli L1, Sekovanić A, Ajvazi M, Kurti L, Daci N.(PubMed)
(292) Indomethacin-induced translocation of bacteria across enteric epithelia is reactive oxygen species-dependent and reduced by vitamin C by Schoultz I1, McKay CM, Graepel R, Phan VC, Wang A, Söderholm J, McKay DM.(PubMed)
(293) Vitamin C derivative ascorbyl palmitate promotes ultraviolet-B-induced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity in keratinocytes by Meves A1, Stock SN, Beyerle A, Pittelkow MR, Peus D.(PubMed)
(294). Effects of dried fish on antioxidant levels in rat liver by Anilakumar KR1, Khanum F, Krishna KR, Viswanathan KR.(PubMed)
(295) Vitamin A and retinoic acid in T cell-related immunity by Ross AC1.(PubMed)
(296) Vitamin A and immune regulation: role of retinoic acid in gut-associated dendritic cell education, immune protection and tolerance by Cassani B1, Villablanca EJ, De Calisto J, Wang S, Mora JR.(PubMed)
(297) Modulatory role of vitamin A on the Candida albicans-induced immune response in human monocytes by Klassert TE1, Hanisch A, Bräuer J, Klaile E, Heyl KA, Mansour MK, Tam JM, Vyas JM, Slevogt H.(PubMed)
(298) [Toxicology of the synthetic antioxidants BHA and BHT in comparison with the natural antioxidant vitamin E].[Article in German]by Kahl R1, Kappus H.(PubMed)
(299) Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants by Darr D1, Dunston S, Faust H, Pinnell S.(PubMed)
(300) Immune dysfunction and cytokine production in hemodialysis. Could they be lessened by vitamin E-coated dialyzer membrane by Senatore M, Cecere P, Colombo P, Costantini L, Filiberti O, Piccini G, Peona C, Buemi M, Nicoletti A, Rizzuto G.(PubMed)
(301) Prospective crossover trial of the influence of vitamin E-coated dialyzer membranes on T-cell activation and cytokine induction by Girndt M1, Lengler S, Kaul H, Sester U, Sester M, Köhler H.(PubMed)
(302) Vitamin E and immunity by Moriguchi S1, Muraga M.(PubMed)
(303) The role of vitamin E in T-cell differentiation and the decrease of cellularimmunity with aging.by Moriguchi S1.(PubMed)
(304) Evaluation of Relation between Anthropometric Indices and Vitamin D Concentrations in Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome by Faraji R1, Sharami SH1, Zahiri Z1, Asgharni M1, Kazemnejad E1, Sadeghi S1.(PubMed)
(305) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)

Friday, October 30, 2015

The Holistic prevention, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The General approaches to Prevent the Unpreventable?

Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Research article By Kyle J. Norton

Biography
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOs)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovascular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).

The prevention and management

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unpreventable in Western medicine. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce risk of its complications, including infertility, metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, stroke, etc.

The General Approaches to prevent the unpreventable?

Although PCOS cannot be completely avoided, strengthening immunity has shown a significant reduction of chronic inflammatory diseases(266)(267)(268).
1. Healthy lifestyle(256)(257)(258)
According to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, women with unhealthy life style are associated to increased risk of chronic diseases(260), including PCOs in comparison to those of healthy women(259), probably due to nutrient deficiency effects of immune functioning(261).

2. Balanced diet
Epidemiological data suggest that dietary patterns strongly affectinflammatory processes(265).
Balancing diet(257)(258) with high in veggies and fruits(257) and less in meats not only provides sufficient nutrients to your body but also enhances the immunity in fighting against inflammatory diseases(264), including PCOs(264), irregular cell growth(263) and oxidative stress(262). Reduced intake of trans and saturated fats and increased intake of omega-3 and omega-9 fatty acids(257) and eating anti-inflammatory foods (fiber(272)(273), omega-3 fatty acids(269), vitamin E(270), and red wine(271) should also be emphasized(255)(265).

3. Moderate exercise(257)
Moderate exercise not only increases blood flow to strengthen the body tissues(274)(275) and organs(276), including the reproductive system but also enhances the immunity(277) in fighting against inflammatory process(277)(278) due to irregular cell growth(281)(282) and foreign invasion(279)(280).

4. Yoga
Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual practice in Hinduism, Buddhism.
According to studies holistic yoga therapy showed a significant effects in reducing anti-müllerian hormone (AMH-primary outcome), luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, hirsutism, and improving menstrual frequency, glucose, lipid, and insulin values(284) with nonsignificant changes in body weight, FSH, and prolactin in adolescent PCOS(283).

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

References
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women WithPolycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(260) The Science of Stress, Bad Habits, and Risk of Chronic Diseases
(261) The risks of poor nutrition(SA health)
(262) Circulating markers of oxidative stress and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): a systematic review and meta-analysis by Murri M1, Luque-Ramírez M, Insenser M, Ojeda-Ojeda M, Escobar-Morreale HF.(PubMed)
(263) The reproductive phenotype in polycystic ovary syndrome by Chang RJ1.(PubMed)
(264) Mesenchymal stem/progenitors and other endometrial cell types from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display inflammatory and oncogenic potential by Piltonen TT1, Chen J, Erikson DW, Spitzer TL, Barragan F, Rabban JT, Huddleston H, Irwin JC, Giudice LC.(PubMed)
(265) Anti-inflammatory effects of plant-based foods and of their constituents by Watzl B1.(PubMed)
(266) [Immunopathological responses in women with chronic inflammatorydiseases of the uterus and appendages and their therapeutic correction].[Article in Russian] by Medvedev BI1, Kazachkova EA, Kazachkov EL.(PubMed)
(267) Cross Talk Between ER Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Health and Disease by Dandekar A1, Mendez R, Zhang K.(PubMed)
(268) New dog and new tricks: evolving roles for IL-33 in type 2 immunity by Lott JM1, Sumpter TL1, Turnquist HR2.(PubMed)
(269) Dietary n-6 and n-3 fatty acids in immunity and autoimmune disease by Harbige LS1.(PubMed)
(270) Effect of conjugated linoleic Acid, vitamin e, alone or combined onimmunity and inflammatory parameters in adults with active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial by Aryaeian N1, Djalali M2, Shahram F3, Djazayery A4, Eshragian MR5.(PubMed)
(271) Red wine may be used in the therapy of myocarditis by Chen CJ1, Yu W, Wang W.(PubMed)
(272) High dietary fiber lowers systemic inflammation: potential utility in COPD and lung cancer by Young RP1, Hopkins RJ2.(PubMed)
(273) Dietary fibre linked to decreased inflammation in overweight minority youth by Miller SJ1, Batra AK, Shearrer GE, House BT, Cook LT, Pont SJ, Goran MI, Davis JN.(PubMed)
(274) Effects of high-intensity blood flow restriction exercise on muscle fatigue by Neto GR1, Santos HH2, Sousa JB3, Júnior AT4,(PubMed)
(275) Influence of Blood Flow Restriction During Low-intensity Resistance Exercise on the Post-exercise Hypotensive Response by Maior AS1, Simão R, Rocha Martins MS, Freitas de Salles B, Willardson JM. Araújo JP3, Aniceto RR5, Sousa MS3.(PubMed)
(276) Impact of exercise on muscle and nonmuscle organs by Boström PA1, Graham EL, Georgiadi A, Ma X.(PubMed)
(277) Exercise as an anti-inflammatory therapy for rheumatic diseases-myokine regulation by Benatti FB1, Pedersen BK2.(PubMed)
(278) The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases by Brandt C1, Pedersen BK.(PubMed)
(279) Enhanced follicular dendritic cell-B cell interaction in HIV and SIV infections and its potential role in polyclonal B cell activation by Rosenberg YJ1, Lewis MG, Kosco-Vilbois MH.(PubMed)
(280) THE FATE OF THE GIANT CELLS IN HEALING TUBERCULOUS TISSUE, AS OBSERVED IN A CASE OF HEALING TUBERCULOUS MENINGITIS by Hektoen L1.(PubMed)
(281) Cell-mediated immunity to mouse tumors: some recent findings. Hellström KE, Hellström I.(PubMed)
(282) Anti-TIM3 antibody promotes T cell IFN-γ-mediated antitumor immunity and suppresses established tumors by Ngiow SF1, von Scheidt B, Akiba H, Yagita H, Teng MW, Smyth MJ.(PubMed)
(283) Effects of a holistic yoga program on endocrine parameters in adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a randomized controlled trial by Nidhi R1, Padmalatha V, Nagarathna R, Amritanshu R.(PubMed)
(284) Effect of a yoga program on glucose metabolism and blood lipid levels in adolescent girls with polycystic ovary syndrome byNidhi R1, Padmalatha V, Nagarathna R, Ram A.(PubMed)
(285) Food, Immunity, and the Microbiome by Tilg H1, Moschen AR2.(PubMed)

Thursday, October 29, 2015

The Holistic prevention, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: The Complications

Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Research article By Kyle J. Norton

Biography
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
Nominated for shorty award over last 4 years
Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOs)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovascular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).

PCOs Complications
1. Cardiovascular diseases
Beside cancer, heart disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday. Approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease. Women with PCOs have found to have increased risk of CVD due to hyperandrogenism in aggravation of abdominal obesity(211), insulin resistance forming(211), metabolic syndrome(212), type 2 diabetes(212)(213), altered plasma lipid profile(215), sympathovagal imbalance(216),.... According to University of Western Australia, treatment in uncorrelated components, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia/hypertension or hyperandrogenaemia may be effectively to reduce differing cardiometabolic outcomes(214). Non-medical (normalization of weight, healthy lifestyle) and medical (metformin, thiazolidinediones, spironolactone, and statins) interventions were found effectively in reduced long-term risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in women with PCOs(217).
Conflictingly, according to the study by Division of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, although women with PCOS weighed more than controls, there was no increased prevalence of other CV risk factors(218). The study also insisted that data on the incidence of CV events are lacking in PCOs' population(218)

2. Stroke
Besides cancer and heart diseases, stroke is the third leading cause of death. Approximate 1/4 of all stroke victims die as a direct result of the stroke or it's complications. Epidemiological evidences suggested that women with PCOs are at increased risk of stroke(220)(221). According to the review of 1340 articles, 5 follow-up studies published between 2000 and 2008 conducted by Leiden University Medical Center,, risk of stroke of women with PCOs was 2 folds higher in comparison of women with PCOS to women without PCOS(219).

3. Endometrial cancer
Endometrium is the inner lining of the mammalian uterus and very susceptible hormone change, particular to menstrual cycle. Endometrial cancer is a late adulthood cancer defined as a condition of which the cells of the endometrial lining of uterus have growth uncontrollable or become cancerous as a result of the alternation of cells DNA. It's the fourth most common cancer among women overall, after breast cancer, lung cancer, and bowel cancer.
women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with altered estrogen and/or abnormality of levels progesterone (P4) at gene level(222), mutation gene(223)(227), abnormal levels of hormone (gonadotropins, estrogens, androgens, prolactin, andserotonin and progesterone),(228), hyperandrogenism(224), abnormal menstrual pattern(225), insulin resistance(228) associated with PCOS and obesity(226)(228), may contribute to increased endometrial cancer risk(222). Metformin(229) and combination of metformax, bromcriptine mesylate and metformin showed to improve clinical and metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS(230) with metformin alone through up-regulated tumor suppressor gene such as p53, cyclin D2 and BCL-2)(229).

4. Dyslipidemia
Dyslipidemia, one of metabolic syndrome has found to be associated to many patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) risk factor(233), chracterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL)(234), probably different metabolic aetiologies depending on DHEA-S metabolism, independent to insulin concentrations(235).
According to University of Brescia, Italy, use of the oral contraceptive for suppressed gonadotropin and androgen values and increased the levels of sex hormone binding globulin in women with PCOs showed a significant increase in triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol system(232). Phytochemicals Berberine and monacolin showed effectively in a balanced lipid profile, through improve lipid metabolism in oral contraceptive induced hypercholesterolemia in women with or without PCOS(231).

5. Pregnancy risk
Women with PCOs are associated to higher rate of early pregnancy loss in comparison to women with reproductive problems(237). According to joint study conducted by Norwegian University of Science and St Olavs Hospital, wone with PCOs are associated to pre term delivery in twin pregnancies(236). Treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) showed to enhance higher odds of getting pregnant with a live birth(238). In subfertile women with anovulatory PCOS, letrozole improved live birth and pregnancy rates in comparison to clomiphene citrate(239).
Adding phytochemical Cimicifugae Racemosae to clomiphene-induction cycles with timed intercourse significantly improved cycle outcomes and pregnancy rates in women with polycystic ovarian(241). Traditional Chinese formula, Danzhi Xiaoyao Pill (DXP) effectively enhanced the ovulation rate and the clinical pregnancy rate of 60% in anovulation infertility patients with PCOS complicated IR(242).
Dr. Ried K. at National Institute of Integrative Medicine, Hawthorn, Melbourne, VIC, Australia said " Chinese herbal medicine can improve pregnancy rates 2-fold within a 3-6 month period compared with Western medical fertility drug therapy, including women with PCOS"(240).

6. Infertility(See diseases associated to PCOs)

7. Higher risk of Gestational diabetes
Epidemiologocal studies, linking higher incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) for women with PCOs has porduced inconsistent result(243)(244). Aristotle University suggested a improve properly designed studies are necessary before any recommendation to pregnant women with PCOS in regard to the risk of GDM(245), But according to Imperial College School of Medicine, there is a higher prevalence of polycystic ovarian morphology in women with a history of gestational diabetes(246).

8. Depression
Women with PCOS are found to have a higher rate of depression in comparison group women without(247)(248)(250). Psychologically, according to Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, women with PCOs are associated with a great number of psychological symptoms, including (e.g. depression, anxiety, body image dissatisfaction, eating and sexual disorders, and low life satisfaction) due to gynaecological disorder of endocrine origin(249).

9. Liver diseases
Women with PCOS are associated to high risk of NAFLD(251)(252)(253). The suggested that some women with PCOS particularly those with an evidence of metabolic syndrome. should be considered to be screened for liver disease at an earlier age(254).

10. Diabetes(See diseases associated to PCOs)


Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

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References
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women WithPolycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
(21) Arterial stiffness is increased in asymptomatic nondiabetic postmenopausal women with a polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype by Armeni E1, Stamatelopoulos K, Rizos D, Georgiopoulos G, Kazani M, Kazani A, Kolyviras A, Stellos K, Panoulis K, Alexandrou A, Creatsa M, Papamichael C, Lambrinoudaki I.(PubMed)
(211) Cardiovascular risk factors and events in women with androgen excess by Macut D1, Antić IB, Bjekić-Macut J.(PubMed)
(212) Assessment of cardiovascular risk and prevention of cardiovasculardisease in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome: a consensus statement by the Androgen Excess and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (AE-PCOS) Society by Wild RA1, Carmina E, Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Dokras A, Escobar-Morreale HF, Futterweit W, Lobo R, Norman RJ, Talbott E, Dumesic DA.(PubMed)
(213) Type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome: what are the risks and can they be reduced? by Tomlinson J1, Millward A, Stenhouse E, Pinkney J.(PubMed)
(214) Clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in the polycystic ovary syndrome: a principal component analysis by Stuckey BG1, Opie N2, Cussons AJ3, Watts GF4, Burke V4.(PubMed)
(215) Cardiac fatty acid uptake and metabolism in the rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Tepavčević S1, Milutinović DV, Macut D, Stojiljković M, Nikolić M, Božić-Antić I, Ćulafić T, Bjekić-Macut J, Matić G, Korićanac G.(PubMed)
(216) Assessment of cardiovascular autonomic function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Saranya K1, Pal GK, Habeebullah S, Pal P.(PubMed)
(217) Cardiovascular risk and subclinical cardiovascular disease in polycystic ovary syndrome by Bajuk Studen K1, Jensterle Sever M, Pfeifer M.(PubMed)
(218) Risk of cardiovascular events in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Iftikhar S1, Collazo-Clavell ML, Roger VL, St Sauver J, Brown RD Jr, Cha S, Rhodes DJ.(PubMed)
(220) Risk of coronary heart disease and risk of stroke in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Anderson SA1, Barry JA1, Hardiman PJ2(PubMed)
(221) Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in PCOS women of postmenopausal age: a 21-year controlled follow-up study by Schmidt J1, Landin-Wilhelmsen K, Brännström M, Dahlgren E.(PubMed)
(22) Endometrial stromal fibroblasts from women with polycystic ovary syndrome have impaired progesterone-mediated decidualization, aberrant cytokine profiles and promote enhanced immune cell migration in vitro by Piltonen TT1, Chen JC2, Khatun M3, Kangasniemi M3, Liakka A4, Spitzer T2, Tran N2, Huddleston H2, Irwin JC2, Giudice LC5.(PubMed)
(223) The effect of Metformin on endometrial tumor-regulatory genes and systemic metabolic parameters in polycystic ovarian syndrome - a proof-of-concept study by Shafiee MN1, Malik DA, Yunos RI, Atiomo W, Omar MH, Ghani NA, Hatta AZ, Seedhouse C, Chapman C, Mokhtar NM.(PubMed)
(224) Micronized estradiol and progesterone therapy in primary, preinvasiveendometrial cancer (1A/G1) in young women with polycystic ovarian syndrome by Stanosz S1, von Mach-Szczypiński J, Sieja K, Koœciuszkiewicz J.(PubMed)
(225) The percentages of endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer among polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients presenting with abnormal menstrual pattern by Prakansamut N, Sirayapiwat P, Triratanachat S.(PubMed)
(226) PCOS and obesity: insulin resistance might be a common etiology for the development of type I endometrial carcinoma by Li X1, Shao R2(PubMed)
(227) Mesenchymal stem/progenitors and other endometrial cell types from women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) display inflammatory and oncogenic potential by Piltonen TT1, Chen J, Erikson DW, Spitzer TL, Barragan F, Rabban JT, Huddleston H, Irwin JC, Giudice LC.(PubMed)
(229) The effect of Metformin on endometrial tumor-regulatory genes and systemic metabolic parameters in polycystic ovarian syndrome - a proof-of-concept study by Shafiee MN1, Malik DA, Yunos RI, Atiomo W, Omar MH, Ghani NA, Hatta AZ, Seedhouse C, Chapman C, Mokhtar NM.(PubMed)
(230) Micronized estradiol and progesterone therapy in primary, preinvasive endometrial cancer (1A/G1) in young women with polycystic ovarian syndrome by Stanosz S1, von Mach-Szczypiński J, Sieja K, Koœciuszkiewicz J.(PubMed)
(231) Berberine and monacolin effects on the cardiovascular risk profile of women with oestroprogestin-induced hypercholesterolemia by Cicero AF1, Reggi A, Parini A, Morbini M, Rosticci M, Grandi E, Borghi C.(PubMed)
(232) Effects of long-term administration of an oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol and cyproterone acetate on lipid metabolism in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Falsetti L1, Pasinetti E.(PubMed)
(233) Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and the Metabolic Syndrome by Julie L. Sharpless, MD(American diabeyes association)
(234) Pathophysiology and types of dyslipidemia in PCOS by Diamanti-Kandarakis E1, Papavassiliou AG, Kandarakis SA, Chrousos GP(PubMed)
(235) Dyslipidaemia in polycystic ovarian syndrome: different groups, different aetiologies? by Meirow D1, Raz I, Yossepowitch O, Brzezinski A, Rosler A, Schenker JG, Berry EM.(PubMed)
(236) Pregnancy and perinatal outcomes in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and twin births: a population-based cohort study by Løvvik TS1, Wikström AK, Neovius M, Stephansson O, Roos N, Vanky E.(PubMed)
(237) [Reproductive problems in women with PCOS, the impact of PAI-1 carriers of 4G PAI-1 polymorphism and BMI]. [Article in Russian] [No authors listed](PubMed)
(238) N-acetylcysteine for polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials byThakker D1, Raval A2, Patel I3, Walia R4.(PubMed)
(239) Aromatase inhibitors for subfertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Franik S1, Kremer JA, Nelen WL, Farquhar C.(PubMed)
(240) Chinese herbal medicine for female infertility: an updated meta-analysis by Ried K1.(PubMed)
(241) Adding the phytoestrogen Cimicifugae Racemosae to clomiphene induction cycles with timed intercourse in polycystic ovary syndrome improves cycle outcomes and pregnancy rates - a randomized trial by Shahin AY1, Mohammed SA.(PubMed)
(242) [Effect of danzhi xiaoyao pill on ovulation induction of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients of pathogenic fire derived from stagnation of gan-qi]. [Article in Chinese] by Liu Y1, Mao LH.(PubMed)
(243) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) patients pregnant after ovulation induction with gonadotrophins by Vollenhoven B1, Clark S, Kovacs G, Burger H, Healy D.(PubMed)
(244) Prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus and pregnancy outcomes in Asian women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Weerakiet S1, Srisombut C, Rojanasakul A, Panburana P, Thakkinstian A, Herabutya Y.(PubMed)
(245)
(246) The prevalence of polycystic ovaries in women with a history of gestational diabetes. Kousta E1, Cela E, Lawrence N, Penny A, Millauer B, White D, Wilson H, Robinson S, Johnston D, McCarthy M, Franks S.(PubMed)
(247) Reporting the rates of depression in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by Barry JA1, Kuczmierczyk AR, Hardiman PJ.(PubMed)
(248) Depression symptoms and body dissatisfaction association among polycystic ovary syndrome women by Pastore LM1, Patrie JT, Morris WL, Dalal P, Bray MJ.(PubMed)
(249) Psychological aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome by Farkas J1, Rigó A, Demetrovics Z.(PubMed)
(250) Is having polycystic ovary syndrome a predictor of poor psychological function including anxiety and depression? by Deeks AA1, Gibson-Helm ME, Paul E, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(251) Are women with polycystic ovarian syndrome at a high risk of non-alcoholic Fatty liver disease; a meta-analysis by Ramezani-Binabaj M1, Motalebi M2, Karimi-Sari H3, Rezaee-Zavareh MS1, Alavian SM4.(PubMed)
(252) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Cerda C1, Pérez-Ayuso RM, Riquelme A, Soza A, Villaseca P, Sir-Petermann T, Espinoza M, Pizarro M, Solis N, Miquel JF, Arrese M.(PubMed)
(253) [Prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a case-control study]. [Article in Chinese] by Zheng RH1, Ding CF.(PubMed)
(254) An association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovarian syndrome by Brzozowska MM1, Ostapowicz G, Weltman MD(PubMed)

Wednesday, October 28, 2015

The Holistic prevention, management and treatment of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Diseases Associated to PCOs

Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Research article By Kyle J. Norton

Biography
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOs)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovascular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).

Diseases associated to PCOs
1. Hyperprolactinemia
Hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are on the list of the most frequent causes of female infertility(109).
Prolactin, produced by the anterior pituitary gland primarily plays important breast development during pregnancy and milk production after birth. Hyperprolactinaemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) effects the normal function of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland(110), leading to ovulatory infertility(111), decreasing in menstruation and sometimes lost of menstruation(112) and sexual desire(114). In men, hyperprolactinemia has shown a reduction in seminal volume and total sperm count accompanied with a decrease in libido and lost spontaneous erections. and sexual desire(113). But according to Medical University of Lodz, and Medical Centre of Postgraduate Education, " Hyperprolactinemia does not seem to be more frequent in PCOS women than in healthy subjects and it should not be considered as characteristic feature of PCOS - both are distinct clinical entities...."(108).
Chinese medical herbs-Huiru Yizeng Yihao(NO.1 HRYZ), has shown effectively for treatment of sex hormone disorder of hyperprolactinemia and HMG mice models(149).

2. Vagina bleeding
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated to dysfunctionaluterine bleeding (DUB) are more common in their extremes of reproductive life(115)(116). According to study, Oral contraceptive pill has a significantly therapeutic effect for treatment in DUB and metrorrhagic forms of PCOS(117)(118). Chinese formulated herbs product (Kuntai) has shown effectively in alleviating menopausal symptoms of irregular bleeding(150).

3. Ovarian cysts
Women with PCOs Have shown to susceptible to dysfunctional follicular development, with small follicles and cysts(119) of which may interfere with normal conception(120)(121)(122), probably due to angiogenic factors and factors of communication of the interactions between luteal vascular and nonvascular tissues(123). Oral contraceptive users have found to have a lower incidence of ovarian cysts(124)(125)(126). Chinese herbs, Penyan Kang (formula for treating pelvic inflammation) showed effectively in treating ofovarian cyst with no abnormality and adverse effect(127)(128).
Warming acupuncture plus moxibustion combined with oral administration of Quyu Decoction in Chinese traditional medicine therapy significantly increased the cured rate for ovarian cysts, according to Shandong Provincial Institute of TCM,(151).

4. Uterine cancer
According to a joint study, PCOS might increase the risk of uterine cancer in a PCOS cohort consisted of 3,566 patients, and the comparison cohort consisted of 14,264 matched control patients without PCOS(129). But according to David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, there are insufficient data to evaluate any association between PCOS and vaginal, vulvar and cervical cancer or uterine leiomyosarcoma(130). Therefore, a large-scale, well-designed studies are necessary to confirm the association betweenPCOS and gynecological cancer risk(129). Herbal Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB) has been found effectively in anti-tumor proliferation against human uterine leiomyoma(152).

5. Fatty liver diseases(NAFLD)
Women with PCOs, especially to those women are BMI > 25 kg/m², glucose level > 80 mg/dL, E2/T < 80 and ALT > 19 IU/L (134) have shown to associated to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(131)(132)(133) as a result of abnormal lipid handling by the liver, due to higher triglyceride and cholesterol and lower HDL level(133). Lifestyle interventions and weight loss, accompanied pharmacologic interventions have shown effectively for treatment of NAFL(129). Total alkaloids in herbal Rubus aleaefolius Poir (TARAP)(153), Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. (COT(154), hawthorn fruit(155) showed effectively in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced NAFLD through antioxidant activities.

6. Hypertension
The prevalence of hypertension was 19.2% in the women with PCOS, which was much higher than healthy women, in a study of Han Chinese population(136). Young women with PCOS and higher BMI may be at an increased risk of hypertension, according to the from survey 4 in 2006 (n = 8,612, age of 28-33 years(135) but this result has been challenged by the study at Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade de São Paulo(137). Certain medical herbs and spices, such as Molle (Schinus molle), Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp), Caigua (Cyclanthera pedata) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) were found to have highest anti-hypertension through their phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities(156).

7. Insulin resistance(IR)
Epidemiologically(138)(139)(140)(141), strong evidences linking insulin resistance in women with PCOs
may be resulted of pathogenesis involved several associated hormonal pathways(139), including autoimmune thyroid disease(142)(143) or phenotypes(141). Life style interferences, including modest reduction in dietary carbohydrate may be beneficial on body composition, fat distribution, and glucose metabolism, according to University of Alabama at Birmingham(144). Traditional Chinese herbal formula containing Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma (PLCP), alleviated IR in comparison to metformin, through its actions of phytochemicals puerarin, 3'-methoxypuerarin, daidzin, daidzein, and ononin(157).

8. Cushing's syndrome
PCO and PCOS are common in women with Cushing's syndrome(146). The mimic symptoms such as obesity and insulin resistance, menstrual abnormalities and hyperandrogenism in women with polycystic ovarysyndrome (PCOS) and Cushing's syndrome (CS) have caused confusing in diagnosis(147). According to Charles Drew University of Medicine and Science, testosterone levels of <1.39 nmol/L may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS(148) and hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities were found more common in initial PCOS diagnosis than in CS(145).
(146).

9. Obesity
In US, 80% of women with PCOs are found be either over weight of obese, according to statistic(158). Obesity also exhibited complication of some features of PCOS including hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, infertility and pregnancy (159) and exacerbated many aspects of the phenotype, especially cardiovascular risk factors such as glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia(159). According to Karolinska Institutet, lifestyle interventions to induce weight loss and adjuvant pharmacologic treatments may be the most successful strategy to improve symptoms of PCOS(160). Pi transportation, dampness resolving and phlegm expelling herbs (PTDRPEH) in traditional Chinese effectively reduce body weight and TNF-alpha in the adipose tissue, inhibit fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance (IR), through attenuating leptin resistance, and elevating serum levels of leptin and adiponectin(161).

10. Amenorrhea
Polycystic ovary syndrome was found to be the most common cause of secondary amenorrhea in Korean women(163) and women in US.(164) with secondary of severe hyperthyroidism. Herbal extracts including Vitex agnus-castus, Cimicifuga racemosa, Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp., Paeonia lactiflora and Cinnamomum cassia in TCM has shown more efective in treating polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism than pharmaceutical agents bromocriptine (and Vitex agnus-castus) and clomiphene citrate (and Cimicifuga racemosa)(162).

11. Miscarriages
Epidemiologically, linking miscarriage and recurrent miscarriage to PCOs are inclusive(165)(166)(167), but some researchers still insisted that raising levels luteinising hormone (LH), one of the complications in women with PCOs may be associated with increased rates of miscarriage(168)(169)(170). According to Net doctor, Women with raised LH have a 4 fold increased risk of miscarriage(170).

12. Metabolic syndrome
Metabolic syndrome, a collection of symptoms that can lead to diabetes(174)(175) and heart disease(175)(176)(177) has found to be associated to women with PCOs, probably due to genetic mutation of certain genes(171)(172),increased accumulation of adipose tissue and insulin resistance(173). Herbal Coccinia indica and American ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Aloe vera, vanadium, Momordica charantia, and nopal and supplement Chromium may be the alternative options for glucose control in patients with diabetes(178), and TCM herbs and herbal formula Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang may also be effective for the treatment of CVD(179).

13. Infertility
Infertility is condition of inability of a couple to conceive after 12 months of unprotected sexual intercourse or can not carry the pregnancy to full term. It effects over 7 millions couple alone in the U. S. and many times more in the world, because of unawareness of treatments, only 10% seeks help from professional specialist(181). In fact, approximately 21% - 30% of infertility of a couple is caused by male inability to fertilize(182) with men aged 40 years and older. (According to statistics from US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
* Number of women ages 15-44 with impaired fecundity (impaired ability to get pregnant or carry a baby to term): 6.7 million
* Percent of women ages 15-44 with impaired fecundity: 10.9%
* Number of married women ages 15-44 that are infertile (unable to get pregnant after at least 12 consecutive months of unprotected sex with husband): 1.5 million
* Percent of married women ages 15-44 that are infertile: 6.0%
* Number of women ages 15-44 who have ever used infertility services: 7.4 million)(180).
The infertility rate of women with polycystic ovaries is very high, due to lack of ovulation and others unknown etiology. Medication used for treatment of PCOs infertility include clomiphene citrate(183)(184)(189), metformin(183)(186), letrozole(184)(85)(186)(189), tamoxifen(185)(189), anastrozole(187)(188)....... Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) recipes formulated by Shen-replenishing herbs or acupuncture to reinforce Gan-Shen, regulate Chong-Ren Channels are found effectively in treating infertile and sub fertile PCOs women(191) when they are used alone or in conjunction with Western medicine(190).

14. Irregular menstruation
Menstrual irregularity and/or elevated androgen levels are found to be associated to women with PCOs(192)(193) due to hormone imbalance. According to a self questionnaire survey, irregular menstrual not only already presents in adolescence in women with PCOS and but also induced infertility in later life(194). Medication used for treatment of PCOs irregular menses include oral contraceptive pill(195) and metformin(195)(196). Herbal extracts such as Vitex agnus-castus, Cimicifuga racemosa, Tribulus terrestris, Glycyrrhiza spp., Paeonia lactiflora and Cinnamomum cassia, may be used for treatment in regulation of ovulation, improved metabolic hormone profile(196).

15. Diabetes
The prevalence of insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is found to be associated to the critical risk for Type 2 diabetes(198)(199)(200). Insulin-sensitizing medication, such as pioglitazone(202), metformin and thiazolidinediones(203). may be a promising and unique therapeutic option for chronic treatment of PCOS(201). Traditional Chinese acupuncture(204) and herbal formula danzhi xiaoyao pill have shown effectively in reduced PCOs complicated insulin resistance(IR)(205)

16. Acromegaly
Acromegaly is defined as over production of growth hormones caused by a benign(some may behave more aggressive(209) tumor of the pituitary gland(208) and in rare case, it may be caused by tumors of the pancreas, lungs, and adrenal glands, leading to excess GnRH(210), resulting in male pattern hair growth(207). According to University of Athens, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and PCOS phenotype (PCOSP) are relatively common in women with acromegaly and may account for some of the symptoms related to gonadal dysfunction due to hormone IGF-1 or in combination with growth hormone GH and/or insulin resistance(206).

17. Etc.

Ovarian Cysts And PCOS Elimination
Holistic System In Existence That Will Show You How To
Permanently Eliminate All Types of Ovarian Cysts Within 2 Months

References
(1) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(2) A "kiss" before conception: triggering ovulation with kisspeptin-54 may improve IVF by Young SL.(PubMed)
(3.) Androgen hyperfunction and excessive heterosexual hair growth in women, with special attention to the polycystic ovarian syndrome by Lunde O1.(PubMed)
(4) Expression of anti-Müllerian hormone in letrozole rat model of polycystic ovary syndrome by Du DF1, Li XL, Fang F, Du MR.(PubMed)
(5) [Serum levels of anti-muller hormone in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women of reproductive age].[Article in Bulgarian] by Parahuleva N, Pehlivanov B, Orbecova M, Deneva T, Uchikova E.(PubMed)
(6) [Current opinions on the etiology and pathophysiology of hirsutism].[Article in Polish] by Krysiak R1, Kedzia A, Okopień B.(PubMed)
(7) The clinical evaluation of hirsutism by Somani N1, Harrison S, Bergfeld WF.(PubMed)
(8) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(9) Association of mean platelet volume with androgens and insulin resistance in nonobese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Dogan BA1, Arduc A2, Tuna MM1, Karakılıc E1, Dagdelen I1, Tutuncu Y1, Berker D1, Guler S1.(PubMed)
(10) Approach to the patient: contraception in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Yildiz BO1.(PubMed)
(11) Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): a significant contributor to the overall burden of type 2 diabetes in women by Talbott EO1, Zborowski JV, Rager JR, Kip KE, Xu X, Orchard TJ.(PubMed)
(12) Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Slovak women with polycystic ovary syndrome and its relation to metabolic and reproductive abnormalities by Figurová J1, Dravecká I, Javorský M, Petríková J, Lazúrová I.(PubMed)
(13) Role of Insulin Sensitizers on Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis by Thethi TK1, Katalenich B2, Nagireddy P3, Chabbra P4, Kuhadiya N5, Fonseca V1.(PubMed)
(14) Acne in hirsute women by Lumezi BG1, Pupovci HL1, Berisha VL1, Goçi AU2, Gerqari A3.(PubMed)
(15) Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome by Naderpoor N1, Shorakae S, Joham A, Boyle J, De Courten B, Teede HJ.(PubMed)
(16) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(17) Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women WithPolycystic Ovary Syndrome. by Whigham LD1, Butz DE2, Dashti H3, Tonelli M3, Johnson LK1, Cook ME2, Porter WP4, Eghbalnia HR5, Markley JL6, Lindheim SR7, Schoeller DA8, Abbott DH9, Assadi-Porter FM10.(PubMed)
(18) Risk of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Barry JA1, Azizia MM1, Hardiman PJ2.(PubMed)
(19) Risk of cancer among women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a Danish cohort study by Gottschau M1, Kjaer SK2, Jensen A1, Munk C1, Mellemkjaer L3.(PubMed)
(20) Polycystic ovary syndrome: metabolic consequences and long-term management by Carmina E1.(PubMed)
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(113) Influence of hyperprolactinaemia due to metoclopramide on gonadal function in men by Falaschi P, Frajese G, Sciarra F, Rocco A, Conti C.(PubMed)
(114) Growth hormone, prolactin, and sexuality by Galdiero M1, Pivonello R, Grasso LF, Cozzolino A, Colao A.(PubMed)
(115) Progestogens with or without oestrogen for irregular uterine bleedingassociated with anovulation by Hickey M1, Higham JM, Fraser I.(PubMed)
(116) Excessive uterine bleeding by Talib HJ1, Coupey SM.(PubMed)
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(119) Metformin regulates ovarian angiogenesis and follicular development in a female polycystic ovary syndrome rat model by Di Pietro M1, Parborell F, Irusta G, Pascuali N, Bas D, Bianchi MS, Tesone M, Abramovich D.(PubMed)
(120) Molecular aspects of bovine cystic ovarian disease pathogenesis by Ortega HH1, Marelli BE2, Rey F3, Amweg AN4, Diaz PU5, Stangaferro ML6, Salvetti NR7.(PubMed)
(121) Relationship between ovarian cysts and infertility: what surgery and when? by Legendre G1, Catala L2, Morinière C2, Lacoeuille C2, Boussion F2, Sentilhes L2, Descamps P2.(PubMed)
(122) Altered expression of transforming growth factor-beta isoforms in bovine cystic ovarian disease by Matiller V1, Stangaferro ML, Díaz PU, Ortega HH, Rey F, Huber E, Salvetti NR.(PubMed)
(123) Angiogenesis in the ovary by Redmer DA1, Reynolds LP.(PubMed)
(124) Ovarian and endometrial function during hormonal contraception by ESHRE Capri Workshop Group.(PubMed)
(125) Pretreatment with an oral contraceptive is effective in reducing the incidence of functional ovarian cyst formation during pituitary suppression by gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues by Biljan MM1, Mahutte NG, Dean N, Hemmings R, Bissonnette F, Tan SL.(PubMed)
(126) Ovarian neoplasms, functional ovarian cysts, and oral contraceptivesby Vessey M, Metcalfe A, Wells C, McPherson K, Westhoff C, Yeates D.(PubMed)
(127) Treating ovarian cysts with Chinese herbs: a case report by Qu F1, Zhou J, Yu Y, Linc Q, Jiang YM.(PubMed)
(128) Treating adolescent ovarian cysts with Chinese herbs: a case report by Qu F1, Zhou J, Huang H.(PubMed)
(129) A nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study of the risk ofuterine, ovarian and breast cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Shen CC1, Yang AC1, Hung JH1, Hu LY1, Tsai SJ2.(PubMed)
(130) Cancer risk and PCOS by Dumesic DA1, Lobo RA.(PubMed)
(131) Review of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Kelley CE1, Brown AJ1, Diehl AM1, Setji TL1.(PubMed)
(132) Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome by Vassilatou E1.(PubMed)
(133) An association between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovarian syndrome by Brzozowska MM1, Ostapowicz G, Weltman MD.(PubMed)
(134) Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in women with polycystic ovary syndrome - clinical and metabolic aspects and lipoprotein lipase gene polymorphism by Bohdanowicz-Pawlak A1, Lenarcik-Kabza A, Brona A, Kuliczkowska-Płaksej J, Łaczmański Ł, Zaleska-Dorobisz U, Milewicz A.(PubMed)
(135) Hypertension in Reproductive-Aged Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Association With Obesity by Joham AE1, Boyle JA2, Zoungas S1, Teede HJ3.(PubMed)
(136) Hypertension in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: prevalence and associated cardiovascular risk factors by Shi Y1, Cui Y2, Sun X3, Ma G4, Ma Z4, Gao Q4, Chen ZJ5.(PubMed)
(137) Polycystic ovary syndrome and obesity do not affect vascular parameters related to early atherosclerosis in young women without glucose metabolism disturbances, arterial hypertension and severe abnormalities of lipid profile by Barcellos CR1, Lage SH, Rocha MP, Hayashida SA, Baracat EC, Romano A, Brito VN, Marcondes JA.(PubMed)
(138) Metabolic risk in PCOS: phenotype and adiposity impact by Moran LJ1, Norman RJ2, Teede HJ3.(PubMed)
(139)Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part I. Diagnosis and manifestations by Housman E1, Reynolds RV2.(PubMed)
(140) Hormonal contraceptive choice for women with PCOS: a systematicreview of randomized trials and observational studies by Mendoza N1, Simoncini T, Genazzani AD.(PubMed)
(141) Insulin resistance and endocrine characteristics of the different phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective study by Panidis D1, Tziomalos K, Misichronis G, Papadakis E, Betsas G, Katsikis I, Macut D.(PubMed)
(142) Thyroid disorders and polycystic ovary syndrome: An emerging relationship by Singla R1, Gupta Y2, Khemani M3, Aggarwal S4.(PubMed)
(143) Subclinical hypothyroidism and insulin resistance in polycystic ovary syndrome: is there a relationship by Enzevaei A1, Salehpour S1, Tohidi M2, Saharkhiz N1.(PubMed)
(144) A lower-carbohydrate, higher-fat diet reduces abdominal and intermuscular fat and increases insulin sensitivity in adults at risk of type 2 diabetes by Gower BA1, Goss AM2.(PubMed)
(145) Polycystic ovarian syndrome and Cushing's syndrome: a persistent diagnostic quandary by Brzana J1, Yedinak CG2, Hameed N1, Plesiu A1, McCartney S2, Fleseriu M3.(PubMed)
(146) How common are polycystic ovaries and the polycystic ovariansyndrome in women with Cushing's syndrome? by Kaltsas GA1, Korbonits M, Isidori AM, Webb JA, Trainer PJ, Monson JP, Besser GM, Grossman AB.(PubMed)
(147) Screening for Cushing's syndrome in obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome by Putignano P1, Bertolini M, Losa M, Cavagnini F.(PubMed)
(148) Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone help to distinguish between mild Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome by Pall ME1, Lao MC, Patel SS, Lee ML, Ghods DE, Chandler DW, Friedman TC.(PubMed)
(149) Effect of Chinese medical herbs-Huiru Yizeng Yihao onhyperprolactinemia and hyperplasia of mammary gland in mice by Wang X1, Chen YG, Ma L, Li ZH, Li JY, Liu XG, Zou JL, Wu JH.(PubMed)
(150) [Profiles of irregular bleeding induced by low-dose hormone therapy and Chinese formulated herbs products].[Article in Chinese] by Wang SH1, Lin SQ, Gui QF, Jin MJ, Jiang Y.(PubMed)
(151) [Observation on therapeutic effect of warming acupuncture and moxibustion combined with Chinese drugs on ovarian cysts].[Article in Chinese] by Li YM1, Song LZ, Wang P, Jiang HJ.(PubMed)
(152) Inhibitory effects of Scutellaria barbata D. Don on human uterine leiomyomal smooth muscle cell proliferation through cell cycle analysis by Lee TK1, Lee DK, Kim DI, Lee YC, Chang YC, Kim CH.(PubMed)
(153) Treatment of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Total Alkaloids in Rubus aleaefolius Poir through Regulation of Fat Metabolism by Li Y1, Zhao J2, Zheng H3, Zhong X2, Zhou J3, Hong Z2.(PubMed)
(154) Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb. ameliorates high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in guinea pigs by Zhang Y1, Si Y, Zhai L, Yang N, Yao S, Sang H, Zu D, Xu X, Qin S, Wang J.(PubMed)
(155) Traditional Chinese medicines benefit to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis by Shi KQ1, Fan YC, Liu WY, Li LF, Chen YP, Zheng MH.(PubMed)
(156) Phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibitory potential against key enzymes relevant for hyperglycemia and hypertension of commonly used medicinal plants, herbs and spices in Latin America by Ranilla LG1, Kwon YI, Apostolidis E, Shetty K.(PubMed)
(157) A diet formula of Puerariae radix, Lycium barbarum, Crataegus pinnatifida, and Polygonati rhizoma alleviates insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis in CD-1 mice and HepG2 cells by Liu J1, Zhang H, Ji B, Cai S, Wang R, Zhou F, Yang J, Liu H.(PubMed)
(158) Obesity and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome by Susan Sam, MD(PubMed)
(159) The role of obesity in the development of polycystic ovary syndrome by Motta AB(PubMed)
(160) Polycystic ovary syndrome, obesity and reproductive implications by Hirschberg AL. (PubMed)
(161) [Effect of Pi transportation, dampness resolving and phlegm expelling herbs on the obesity degree, fat hormones, and leptin resistance in diet-induced obesity rats].[Article in Chinese] by Jiang P, Jiang YH.(PubMed)
(162) Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings by Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A.(PubMed)
(163) Causes of amenorrhea in Korea: Experience of a single large center by Kwon SK1, Chae HD1, Lee KH1, Kim SH1, Kim CH1, Kang BM1.(PubMed)
(164) Amenorrhea: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management DAVID A. KLEIN, MD, MPH, San Antonio Military Medical Center, San Antonio, Texas MERRILY A. POTH, MD, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland Am Fam Physician. 2013 Jun 1;87(11):781-788.(The American physician)
(165) The role of serum testosterone in early pregnancy outcome: a comparison in women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome by Lathi RB1, Dahan MH2, Reynolds-May MF3, Milki AA1, Behr B1, Westphal LM1.(PubMed)
(166) The polycystic ovary syndrome does not predict further miscarriage in Japanese couples experiencing recurrent miscarriages by Sugiura-Ogasawara M1, Sato T, Suzumori N, Kitaori T, Kumagai K, Ozaki Y.(PubMed)
(167) Polycystic ovaries and levels of gonadotrophins and androgens in recurrent miscarriage: prospective study in 50 women by Tulppala M1, Stenman UH, Cacciatore B, Ylikorkala O.(PubMed)
(168)Dysregulation of ovarian follicular development in female rat: LH decreases FSH sensitivity during preantral-early antral transition by Orisaka M1, Hattori K, Fukuda S, Mizutani T, Miyamoto K, Sato T, Tsang BK, Kotsuji F, Yoshida Y.(PubMed)
(169) The prognostic value of basal luteinizing hormone:follicle-stimulating hormone ratio in the treatment of patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome by assisted reproduction techniques by Tarlatzis BC1, Grimbizis G, Pournaropoulos F, Bontis J, Lagos S, Spanos E, Mantalenakis S.(PubMed)
(170) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (Net doctor)
(171) 54G/C polymorphism of SREBF-1 gene is associated with polycystic ovary syndrome by Li L1, Yun JH1, Ryoo JE2, Lee KJ3, Choi BC4, Baek KH5.(PubMed)
(172) Association study of polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene and polycystic ovary syndrome by Wang X1, Yang Y1, Huang Y2, Wang Q3.(PubMed)
(173) Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Sam S.(PubMed)
(174) PCOS in adolescence and type 2 diabetes by Carreau AM1, Baillargeon JP.(PubMed)
(175) Polycystic ovary syndrome: a complex condition with psychological, reproductive and metabolic manifestations that impacts on health across the lifespan by Teede H1, Deeks A, Moran L.(PubMed)
(176) New paradigms in PCOS: impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk. Clinical approach by Ravn P1.(PubMed)
(177) Cardiometabolic aspects of the polycystic ovary syndrome by Randeva HS1, Tan BK, Weickert MO, Lois K, Nestler JE, Sattar N, Lehnert H.(PubMed)
(178) Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes by Yeh GY1, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ, Phillips RS.(PubMed)
(179) A systems biology approach to understanding the mechanisms of action of chinese herbs for treatment of cardiovascular disease by Li B1, Xu X, Wang X, Yu H, Li X, Tao W, Wang Y, Yang L.(PubMed)
(180) Infertility(CDC)
(181) Why Do So Few Couples Seek Infertility Treatment? By Jacky Boivin,PhD. Fall 2007
(182) Fertility and the Aging Male by Isiah D Harris, MD,1 Carolyn Fronczak,2Lauren Roth, MD,1 and Randall B Meacham, MD(PubMed)
(183) Status of clomiphene citrate and metformin for infertility in PCOS by Misso ML1, Teede HJ, Hart R, Wong J, Rombauts L, Melder AM, Norman RJ, Costello MF.(PubMed)
(184) Clomiphene citrate or letrozole for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial by Badawy A1, Abdel Aal I, Abulatta M.(PubMed)
(185) Comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen effects in clomiphen citrate resistant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome by El-Gharib MN1, Mahfouz AE1, Farahat MA1(PubMed)
(186) Clomiphene citrate or letrozole for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial by Badawy A1, Abdel Aal I, Abulatta M.(PubMed)
(187) Anastrozole or letrozole for ovulation induction in clomiphene-resistant women with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a prospective randomized trial by Badawy A1, Mosbah A, Shady M.(PubMed)
(188) Aromatase inhibitors for ovulation and pregnancy in polycystic ovary syndrome by Eckmann KR1, Kockler DR.(PubMed)
(189) Comparison of the effectiveness of clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen and letrozole in ovulation induction in infertility due to isolated unovulation by Seyedoshohadaei F1, Zandvakily F1, Shahgeibi S1.(PubMed)
(190) Progress of integrative Chinese and Western medicine in treating polycystic ovarian syndrome caused infertility by Song JJ1, Yan ME, Wu XK, Hou LH.(PubMed)
(191) Chinese herbal medicine for subfertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome by Zhang J1, Li T, Zhou L, Tang L, Xu L, Wu T, Lim DC.(PubMed)
(192) Comprehensive clinical management of polycystic ovary syndrome by Setji TL1, Brown AJ.(PubMed)
(193) Polycystic ovary syndrome by Kahn JA1, Gordon CM.(PubMed)
(194) Irregular menstruation and hyperandrogenaemia in adolescence are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome and infertility in later life: Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study by West S1, Lashen H2, Bloigu A3, Franks S4, Puukka K5, Ruokonen A5, Järvelin MR6, Tapanainen JS7, Morin-Papunen L8.(PubMed)
(195) Randomized clinical trial evaluating metformin versus oral contraceptive pills in the treatment of adolescents with polycystic ovarian syndrome by Al-Zubeidi H, Klein KO.(PubMed)
(196) The effects of treatment with drospirenone/ethinyl oestradiol alone or in combination with metformin on elastic properties of aorta in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Kaya MG1, Calapkorur B, Karaca Z, Yildirim S, Celik A, Akpek M, Unluhizarci K, Kelestimur F.(PubMed)
(197) Herbal medicine for the management of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and associated oligo/amenorrhoea and hyperandrogenism; a review of the laboratory evidence for effects with corroborative clinical findings by Arentz S, Abbott JA, Smith CA, Bensoussan A.(PubMed)
(198) Polycystic ovary syndrome and insulin: our understanding in the past, present and future by Mayer SB1, Evans WS, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(199) PCOS in adolescence and type 2 diabetes by Carreau AM1, Baillargeon JP.(PubMed)
(200) New paradigms in PCOS: impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular risk. Clinical approach. Ravn P1.(PubMed)
(201) Prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease in women with PCOS: treatment with insulin sensitizers by Sharma ST1, Nestler JE.(PubMed)
(202) Effects of the insulin sensitizer pioglitazone on menstrual irregularity, insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome. by Stabile G1, Borrielli I2, Artenisio AC1, Bruno LM1, Benvenga S1, Giunta L1, La Marca A3, Volpe A3, Pizzo A4.(PubMed)
(203) Insulin sensitizers in polycystic ovary syndrome by Pasquali R1, Gambineri A.(PubMed)
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(205) [Effect of danzhi xiaoyao pill on ovulation induction of polycystic ovarian syndrome patients of pathogenic fire derived from stagnation of gan-qi]. [Article in Chinese] by Liu Y1, Mao LH.(PubMed)
(206) Polycystic ovaries and the polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype in women with active acromegaly by Kaltsas GA1, Androulakis II, Tziveriotis K, Papadogias D, Tsikini A, Makras P, Dimitriou K, Stathopoulou A, Piaditis G.(PubMed)
(207() Acromegaly presenting as hirsuitism: Uncommon sinister aetiology of a common clinical sign by Jain R1, Dutta D, Shivaprasad K, Maisnam I, Ghosh S, Mukhopadhyay S, Chowdhury S.(PubMed)
(208) Acromegaly(UCLA health)
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(210) Acromegaly(NIH)
(211) Effects of an oral contraceptive containing estradiol valerate and dienogest on circulating androgen levels and acne in young patients with PCOS: an observational preliminary study by Di Carlo C1, Gargano V, Sparice S, Tommaselli GA, Bifulco G, Nappi C.(PubMed)

Tuesday, October 27, 2015

The Holistic research, clinical trials and studies of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOs): The Causes

Posted by Chantel Martiromo, Research article By Kyle J. Norton

Biography
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.


Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome(PCOs)

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is defined as endocrinologic diseases among reproductive-age women caused by undeveloped follicles clumping on the ovaries that interferes with the function of the normal ovaries associated with a high risk for metabolic disorder(1) as resulting of enlarged ovaries(2), leading to hormone imbalance(excessive androgen and anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) )(1)(3)(4)(5), induced Hirsutism(6)(7), reproductive disorder(10(12)), risks of type 2 diabetes(9)(10)(11), metabolic syndrome(10)(12) and early cardiovascular disease(8)(13), acne(10)(14), endometrial cancer(18)(19),weight gain and obesity(15)(16)(17). The syndrome effects over 5% of women population or 1 in 20 women.
Unfortunately, according to studies, women with PCOs after the reproductive age, are associated to continuously increase risk of type II diabetes, with no increasing altered glucose tolerance(20), CVD and hypertension(21).

The Causes
The causes of polycystic ovarian syndrome are still unknown(69)(70), but there are some suggestions
1. Genetic predisposition
A genetic predisposition is defined as a genetic mutation of some women who were born predisposed to certain health problems(75). In this case, it is polycystic ovarian syndrome(70)(71)(72)(73)(74) .

2. Insulin resistance(82)
Insulin resistance is defined as abnormal levels of insulin in the blood of a person found to be associated to women with PCOs(83). It may be caused by certain health problems such as diabetes(76)(77), abnormal function of pancreas(78)(79) or caused low numbers of the insulin sensitivity of cells(79)(80), which impair the process of glucose in energy conversion(81), induced high blood glucose levels in the body, cause of increasing the risks of ovarian cysts development(83).

3. Obesity(84)
Obesity is defined as a person whose BMI index is over 24. As we known, obesity women in most cases are associated to clinical feature of insulin resistance(76). According to Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, low 25(OH)D levels(86) accompanied with the degree of adiposity may induce the causation of PCOs(85).

4. Hyperandrogenism
Hyperandrogenism is a medical condition characterized by excessive production and/or secretion of androgens leading to male pattern hair growth, probably due to mutation in the polymorphism rs12720071 in women(88). According to Erciyes University, there is a relation between IR(Insulin resistance) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA)(87), a male pattern baldness.
Hirsutism develops when follicles in androgen sensitive areas start to form thick, pigmented hair as opposed to thin, short, non-pigmented hair normally seen in those areas in women with PCOs(89). Evaluating terminal hair growth on the chin or lower abdomen may be a reliable source for predicting hirsutism, according to Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences(90).

5. Environmental chemicals
Environment chemicals endocrine disruptors(91)(92), such as such as xanoestrogen, and lifestyle(91)(92) can causes over production of certain hormone and reduction of others, leading to abnormal function of the reproductive organs including the development of follicles and increasing the risk of PCOs(93).

6. Food adulteration
Food adulteration, including mixing, substituting, concealing the quality of food by mislabeling, putting up decomposed or expired food, and adding toxic substances(94) can lead to hormone imbalance(98) and distort the natural process of women reproductive system(97) and in same cases, result in death(95)(96).

7. Chronic inflammation
Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells which are present at the site of inflammation and is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process(99)(100)(101).

8. Disorders of cortisol metabolism
Cortisol is usually referred to as the stress hormone, presented in high levels in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder(104) as it is secreted in large volume for our body to response to stress and anxiety(103). Disorders of cortisol metabolism is defined as a condition of which cortisol hormone has lost its function in restoring glucose homeostasis(105) in balancing insulin and glucagon in the blood stream(107). According to University College London Hospitals, altered cortisol metabolism does not seem to be the primary cause of PCOS(102).

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(72) The role of androgen receptor activity mediated by the CAG repeat polymorphism in the pathogenesis of PCOS by Baculescu N1.(PubMed)
(73) Study on the zona pellucida 4 (ZP4) gene sequence and its expression in the ovaries of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome by Meczekalski B1, Nawrot R, Nowak W, Czyzyk A, Kedzia H, Gozdzicka-Jozefiak A.(PubMed)
(74) Association study of polymorphism of FXIIIVal34Leu gene andpolycystic ovary syndrome by Wang X1, Yang Y1, Huang Y2, Wang Q3.(PubMed)
(75) Epigenetics and migraine; complex mitochondrial interactions contributing to disease susceptibility by Roos-Araujo D1, Stuart S1, Lea RA1, Haupt LM1, Griffiths LR2.(PubMed)
(76) Mechanisms linking obesity to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes by Kahn SE1, Hull RL, Utzschneider KM.(PubMed)
(77) The effect of past antibiotic exposure on diabetes risk by Boursi B1, Mamtani R2, Haynes K3, Yang YX4.(PubMed)
(78) Portal versus systemic venous drainage of the pancreatic graft: the effect on glucose metabolism in pancreas and kidney transplant recipients by Havrdova T1, Boucek P2, Jedinakova T2, Lipar K3, Kocik M3, Skibova J4, Saudek F2.(PubMed)
(79) The mechanisms linking adiposopathy to type 2 diabetes by Yang J1, Kang J, Guan Y.(PubMed)
(80) Caffeic acid, naringenin and quercetin enhance glucose-stimulatedinsulin secretion and glucose sensitivity in INS-1E cells by Bhattacharya S1, Oksbjerg N, Young JF, Jeppesen PB.(PubMed)
(81) Insulin resistance and adipogenesis: role of transcription and secreted factors by Penkov DN1, Egorov AD, Mozgovaya MN, Tkachuk VA.(PubMed)
(82) Insulin resistance in PCOS by Diamanti-Kandarakis E1(PubMed)
(83) Mouse models to study polycystic ovary syndrome: a possible link between metabolism and ovarian function? by van Houten EL1, Visser JA2.(PubMed)
(84)Epidemiologic investigation of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) in Han ethnic women of reproductive age in Liaoning Province, China by Jiao J, Fang Y, Wang T, Wang Z, Zhou M, Wang X.(PubMed)
(85) Low levels of 25(OH)D and insulin-resistance: 2 unrelated features or acause-effect in PCOS?by Muscogiuri G1, Policola C, Prioletta A, Sorice G, Mezza T, Lassandro A, Della Casa S, Pontecorvi A, Giaccari A.(PubMed)
(86) Association of hypovitaminosis D with metabolic disturbances in polycystic ovary syndrome by Wehr E1, Pilz S, Schweighofer N, Giuliani A, Kopera D, Pieber TR, Obermayer-Pietsch B.(PubMed)
(87) The association of androgenetic alopecia and insulin resistance is independent of hyperandrogenemia: A case-control study by Kartal D1, Borlu M, Çınar SL, Ferahbaş A, Ulaş Y, Ünlühızarcı K, Ukşal Ü, Keleştimur F.(PubMed)
(88) GG genotype Selected CNR1 polymorphisms and hyperandrogenemia as well as fat mass and fat distribution in women with polycystic ovary syndrome by Jędrzejuk D1, Laczmański L, Kuliczkowska J, Lenarcik A, Trzmiel-Bira A, Hirnle L, Dorobisz U, Milewicz A, Lwow F, Urbanovych A, Słoka N.(PubMed)
(89) Women self-perception of excess hair growth, as a predictor of clinical hirsutism: a population-based study by Kazemi H1, Ramezani Tehrani F, Minooee S, Khalili D, Azizi F.(PubMed)
(90) Evaluation of only the chin or lower abdomen for predicting hirsutism by Rashidi H1, Parizi ZT, Mohammadi M.(PubMed)
(91) The Pancreas Is Altered by In Utero Androgen Exposure: Implications for Clinical Conditions Such as Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) by Mick Rae, Cathal Grace, Kirsten Hogg, Lisa Marie Wilson, Sophie L. McHaffie,2 Seshadri Ramaswamy, Janis MacCallum, Fiona Connolly, Alan S. McNeilly,and Colin Duncan (PubMed)
(92) Prenatal androgen exposure leads to alterations in gene and protein expression in the ovine fetal ovary by Hogg K1, McNeilly AS, Duncan WC.(PubMed)
(93) Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: Some Actions of POPs on Female Reproduction by Ewa L. Gregoraszczuk* and Anna Ptak(PubMed)
(94) Food Adulteration and Consumer Awareness in Dhaka City, 1995-2011 By Sharifa Nasreencorresponding author1 and Tahmeed Ahmed(PubMed)
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(96) Park K. Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine. 18th ed. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot; 2005. p. 481.
(97) Menstrual effects among women exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and dibenzofurans by Yang CY1, Huang TS, Lin KC, Kuo P, Tsai PC, Guo YL.(PubMed)
(98) Endocrine modulators in the food chain and environment by Nilsson R1.(PubMed)
(99) Adipose tissue dysfunction, adipokines and low-grade chronicinflammation in PCOS by Spritzer PM1, Lecke SB2, Satler F3, Morsch DM4.(PubMed)
(100) Adipose tissue dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome by Villa J1, Pratley RE.(PubMed)
(101) Adipose tissue, metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: from pathophysiology to treatment by Garruti G1, Depalo R, Vita MG, Lorusso F, Giampetruzzi F, Damato AB, Giorgino F.(PubMed)
(102) Altered cortisol metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome: insulin enhances 5alpha-reduction but not the elevated adrenal steroid production rates by Tsilchorozidou T1, Honour JW, Conway GS.(PubMed)
(103) Increased testosterone levels and cortisol awakening responses in patients with borderline personality disorder: Gender and trait aggressiveness matter by Rausch J1, Gäbel A1, Nagy K1, Kleindienst N2, Herpertz SC1, Bertsch K3.(PubMed|)
(104) Increased systemic cortisol metabolism in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a mechanism for increased stress vulnerability? by Steen NE1, Methlie P, Lorentzen S, Hope S, Barrett EA, Larsson S, Mork E, Almås B, Løvås K, Agartz I, Melle I, Berg JP, Andreassen OA.(PubMed)
(105) Elevated maternal cortisol leads to relative maternal hyperglycemia and increased stillbirth in ovine pregnancy by Keller-Wood M1, Feng X2, Wood CE3, Richards E2, Anthony RV4, Dahl GE5, Tao S5.(PubMed)
(106) Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man by Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC.(PubMed)
(107) Glucose Homeostasis and Starvation(Glucose Homeostasis)