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Saturday, June 25, 2016

Women Health: The Effects of Hormone Estrogen(2)

Kyle J. Norton(Scholar, Master of Nutrients), all right reserved.
Health article writer and researcher; Over 10.000 articles and research papers have been written and published on line, including world wide health, ezine articles, article base, healthblogs, selfgrowth, best before it's news, the karate GB daily, etc.,.
Named TOP 50 MEDICAL ESSAYS FOR ARTISTS & AUTHORS TO READ by Disilgold.com Named 50 of the best health Tweeters Canada - Huffington Post
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Some articles have been used as references in medical research, such as international journal Pharma and Bio science, ISSN 0975-6299.

Estrogen is a female sex hormone defined as a group of compounds for its function in regulating in the estrous cycle of women after puberty.

A. Maintenance of vessels and skin
It is easy to understand that estrogen maintain the healthy and vessels and skin for pre-menopause women, as ageing is considered as a progressive reduction in function and reserve capacity of skin and vessel tissue. According to the study of "The effect of menopause on the skin and other connective tissues", by Calleja-Agius J, Brincat M., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that oestrogen has profound effects on connective tissue turnover, no matter the site. It has been shown that menopause has similar effects on the connective tissue of the carotid artery media, intervertebral discs and bones.

B. Protein synthesis
Protein is also known as polypeptides, they are are organic compounds made of amino acids and can be found in meat, beans, milk, eggs or any source of food which provides our body the raw materials to build its own protein. Since our body can not store protein, we require to take them regularly. Researchers found that intake of plant base protein is more healthy than animal base protein, because it helps to prevent high blood pressure, reduce cholesterol, heart diseases and strokes, if taking together with complex carbohydrate.


Protein synthesis is defined as a complicate process of cells building or manufacturing proteins. You can view the step of protein synthesis from this link. According to the study of "Estrogen stimulates postsynaptic density-95 rapid protein synthesis via the Akt/protein kinase B pathway" by Akama KT, McEwen BS., posted in PubMed, researchers found that These results demonstrate an essential role for Akt in estrogen-stimulated dendritic spine protein expression, describe for the first time a signal transduction pathway in PSD-95 expression, and delineate a novel, molecular mechanism by which ovarian hormones might translationally regulate synaptogenesis via activating protein synthesis for dendritic function.


C. Coagulation
Coagulation is defined as a complicate process of forming blood clots to reduce the risk of bleeding that can cause blood vessels damage and health of the patient. In a study of in 27 postmenopausal women at baseline and after 2 and 12 weeks of treatment. Oral and transdermal estradiol induced similar increases in serum free estradiol concentrations in measuring the measures of coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and serum lipids and lipoproteins, conducted by University of Helsinki, Finland, posted in PubMed, researchers found that oral estradiol increased markers of fibrinolytic activity, decreased serum soluble E-selectin levels and induced potentially antiatherogenic changes in lipids and lipoproteins. In contrast to these beneficial effects, oral estradiol changed markers of coagulation towards hypercoagulability, and increased serum CRP concentrations.

D. Lipid
Lipid is defined as fat in the blood, including HDL(high density lipoproteins), triglyceride, LDL(low density lipoproteins), etc. levels of estrogen really affect the levels of fat in the blood as one can easily see through the levels of estrogen and lipid in a woman menstrual cycle. According to the study of "Variations in lipid levels according to menstrual cycle phase: clinical implications. Mumford SL, Dasharathy S, Pollack AZ, Schisterman EF., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that Overall, lipoprotein cholesterol levels were observed to vary in response to changing estrogen levels. Taken together, the evidence suggests that total cholesterol and LDL-C tend to be highest during the follicular phase and to decline during the luteal phase, with HDL C highest around ovulation. Based on these findings, the menstrual cycle phase should be taken into account when evaluating lipoprotein cholesterol levels among reproductive-aged women. Measuring cholesterol levels during menses is recommended for consistent comparisons as this phase can be more reliably identified than other phases, although women within National Cholesterol Education Program acceptable ranges, but near the boundaries when tested during menses, should undergo additional tests.

E. Fluid balancing
Estrogen plays an important role in balancing the fluid in the body. According to the study of "Estrogen and the central control of body fluid balance" by Curtis KS., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that Taken together, the body of evidence amassed from more than 40 years of investigations suggests that the central actions of estrogen influence body fluid regulation and, more specifically, compensatory responses to perturbations of osmotic or volume balance in two interrelated ways.

F. Estrogen and Cortisol
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. It is one the hormone that work together with melatonin to regulate the pattern of sleep and awake. Estrogenhas a very close relationshion ship with the increase of levels of cortisol in the reproductive years. According to the stdy of "Cortisol, Estradiol-17{beta} and Progesterone Secretion within the First Hour after Awakening in Women with Regular Menstrual Cycles" by Ahn RS, Choi JH, Choi BC, Kim JH, Lee SH, Sung SS., posted in PubMed, researchers found that The areas under curves showing the E2 and P4 levels from the time immediately after awakening to 60 min after awakening (i.e., E2auc and P4auc) in women with regular menstrual cycles were greater than those in postmenopausal women.

G. Estrogen and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin
SHBG is a glycoprotein, produced by the liver to bind to sex hormones testosterone and estradiol. In an abstract of the study of "The ability of hydroxylated estrogens (2-OH-E2 and 4-OH-E2) to increase of SHBG gene, protein expression and intracellular levels in MCF-7 cells line" by Gregoraszczuk EL, Ptak A, Wrobel A., posted in PubMed, researchers filed the result that 4-OH-E2 in high doses and 2-OH-E2 in the highest dose, while 17β-estradiol in all doses used increased intracellular but not extracellular SHBG levels. Both metabolites increased SHBG mRNA expression, the rank order of potency being E2 > 4-OH-E2 > 2-OH-E2. Both E2 and its metabolites increased SHBG protein expression.

H. Gastrointestinal tract
Gastrointestinal tract forms a part of digestive system and refers to the stomach and intestine or digestive system of all the structures from the mouth to the anus. According to the researcher of the study of "Estrogen, progesterone and the gastrointestinal tract" by Eliakim R, Abulafia O, Sherer DM., posted in PubMed, researchers indicated that This review provides an abundance of data supporting that estrogen and progesterone have both beneficial and detrimental effects on the esophagus, stomach, gallbladder, and small and large intestine.

I. Melanin
Melanin is a is a pigment that gives the human skin and hair color. It is easlily to understand the relattionship of estrogen and melanin, as thw women age, the reduction of levels of estrogen cause the hair color to turn gray. According to the study of Estrogen increases hair pigmentation in female recessive yellow mice" by Hirobe T, Kiuchi M, Wakamatsu K, Ito S., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that suggest that estrogen is the main factor in determining the higher content of eumelanin and pheomelanin in female hair of Mc1r(e)/Mc1r(e) mice.

J. Estrogen and the Lung
Believe it or not, estrogen plays an important role in protect the women lung against diseases. According to the study of Estrogen Rescues Pre-existing Severe Pulmonary Hypertension in Rats" by Umar S, Iorga A, Matori H, Nadadur RD, Li J, Maltese F, van der Laarse A, Eghbali M., posted in PubMed, researchers concluded that estrogen rescues pre-existing severe PH in rats by restoring lungand RV structure and function that is maintained even after removal of estrogen.Estrogen-induced rescue of PH is associated with stimulation of cardiopulmonary neoangiogenesis, suppression of inflammation, fibrosis and RV-hypertrophy. Furthermore, estrogen-rescue is likely mediated through estrogen receptor-b.

K. Estrogen and Fetal development
Believe or not, estrogen Estrogen turns play a central role in maintaining pregnancy and fetal development In the abstract of the study of "Estrogenregulation of placental angiogenesis and fetal ovarian development during primate pregnancy" by Albrecht ED, Pepe GJ., posted in PubMed, researchers wrote that this review will describe the developmental processes required for placental vascularization and fetal follicular maturation and recent studies which show thatestrogen has an important role in regulating these events.

L. Etc.
Pregnancy Miracle
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